br Results and discussion br Conclusion In this
Results and discussion
Conclusion In this research, several anti-inflammatory agents with pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine cores were synthesized. Such choice of large core than regular pyrazole was valid as a proper modification. That most of the prepared compounds showed excellent AI activity. In addition, substitution in position-4 with a variety of active phramacophores exhibited a good activity. Pyrazole 13a its result was more potent and significant than celecoxib. The long lasting anti-inflammatory activity was observed in Schiff\'s derivatives especially that bearing SO2CH3 pharmacophores. Moreover the triazole derivative showed a good inhibitory activity when compared to celecoxib. For gastric safety, many compounds were safe as celecoxib as obtained from the histopathological study.
Introduction Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a highly abundant toxic heavy metal in the environment, causes a broad range of physiological, pathological and behavioural dysfunctions in livestock (O’Brien et al., 2003; Linos et al., 2011). As cumulative toxicant, which holds the potential danger of adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, or other diseases, long-term Cr(VI) intake was paid a great attention to related health risk and become a global issue (Braver et al., 1985, Fan et al., 2012). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a precise membrane system in living adenosine monophosphate clinical that participates in protein folding and maintains calcium homeostasis (Krebs et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2016). When ER function is perturbed by an inner or external stimulus, many unfolded or misfolded proteins accumulate, along with the induction of ER stress (Kaufman, 1999, Lee, 2001). When ER stress occurs, related kinase such as protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) (Kaufman et al., 2002, Rutkowski and Kaufman, 2007, Heath-Engel et al., 2008), phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α-subunit (eIF2α) (Kouroku et al., 2007, Cho et al., 2011), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) would start cascade reaction to adapt such changes (Kouroku et al., 2007; Cho et al., 2011), accompanying with the change of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 or BiP) (Taniguchi and Yoshida, 2015). As a catabolic process, autophagy mediates the degradation of most cytoplasmic components in the lysosome and vacuole (Seglen and Bohley, 1992, Baba et al., 1994), controlled by some cellular signalling pathways. For instance, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) negatively regulate autophagy, whereas the class 3 PI3K/Beclin-1 pathway positively regulates autophagy (Petiot et al., 2002, Rubinsztein et al., 2012). The kinase mTOR is a major negative regulator of autophagy (Herassandoval et al., 2014) and is a key effector in the PI3K-ATK-mTOR pathway (O\'Reilly et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2016). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is the key rate-limiting enzyme and the COX-2-mediated control of PGE2 synthesis is implicated in many dysfunctions and inflammations (Lu et al., 1995; Arosh et al., 2004). It catalyse the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin synthesis (Arosh et al., 2004). Substantial evidence indicates that COX-2 can be induced by several heavy metals, such as Cd (Morales et al., 2006, Huang et al., 2014). Luo et al. indicated that eIF2α-ATF4 pathway is essential for COX-2 expression in HEK cells (Luo et al., 2016). Nevertheless, no report exists on the role of COX-2 in the autophagy induced by Cr(VI).
Materials and methods
Discussion Studies on the inhalational and dermal exposures to Cr(VI) have indicated the immunomodulatory effects of the heavy metal in both human and experimental animals. In previous studies, Cohen et al. found that K2CrO4 can upregulate the immunomodulatory factors such as tumor necrosis, and eventually lead to metal fume fever, perhaps lung cancer (Cohen et al., 1998, Hansen et al., 2003). Inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) induces hypersensitivity reactions in response to Cr(VI) challenge in humans, increased T-cell-dependent antigen responses in sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and increased immunoglobulin levels in animals (Glaser et al., 1985). The toxic heavy metal Cr(VI) causes lung cancer, which is characterized by epistaxis, ulcers, and nasal septum perforation. Additional evidence has revealed that Cr(VI) exposure inflicts severe lung damage in vivo and in vitro, Park’s research find that Cr(VI) can induce DNA damage cell transformation in human lung epithelial cells while Arakawa et al. indicated that Cr(VI) is firmly associated with lung cancer (Arakawa et al., 2006, Hopkins, 1991, Park et al., 2016, Program, 2002). Cr(VI) initially infiltrates into the skin or mucous membrane after exposure. Chen and Zhu et al. found it can change the trace element levels in the organs of chicken, and further to lead the hurt of heart, liver, brain and so on (Chen et al., 2017, Zhu et al., 2017). Other studies have confirmed associations between lung cancer and inhaled Cr(VI) (Braver et al., 1985, Straif et al., 2009). The present study found that inhibiting autophagy with 3-MA can prevent the Cr(VI)-induced cell growth inhibition, which is consistent with Junpeng huang’s study (Huang et al., 2017). Moreover, blocking autophagic upstream signalling, such as the signalling of ER stress and COX-2, also improved cell growth, indicating that ER stress - COX-2 pathway maybe contributes to autophagy related growth.